Zirkonium

40
Zr
Grupp
4
Period
5
Block
d
Protoner
Elektroner
Neutroner
40
40
51
Generella Egenskaper
Atomnummer
40
Atommassa
91,224
Masstal
91
Kategori
Övergångsmetaller
Färg
Silver
Radioaktiv
Nej
From the Persian zargun, gold like
Kristallstruktur
Enkelt hexagonalt
Historia
Zirconium was first recognized as an element by Martin Heinrich Klaproth in 1789, in Berlin, in a sample of zircon from Sri Lanka.

Zirconium metal was first obtained in an impure form in 1824 by Jöns Jakob Berzelius by heating a mixture of potassium and potassium zirconium fluoride in an iron tube.

Dutch scientists Anton Eduard van Arkel and Jan Hendrik de Boer discovered a method for producing high purity zirconium in 1925.
Elektroner per skal
2, 8, 18, 10, 2
Elektronkonfiguration
[Kr] 4d2 5s2
Zr
The most common oxide is zirconium dioxide, also referred to as zirconia
Fysikaliska Egenskaper
Aggregationstillstånd
Fast
Densitet
6,506 g/cm3
Smältpunkt
2128,15 K | 1855 °C | 3371 °F
Kokpunkt
4682,15 K | 4409 °C | 7968,2 °F
Smältvärme
21 kJ/mol
Ångbildningsvärme
580 kJ/mol
Specifik värmekapacitet
0,278 J/g·K
Abundance in Earth's crust
0,013%
Abundance in Universe
5×10-6%
Two
Bildkrediter: Wikimedia Commons (Alchemist-hp)
Two samples of crystal bar showing different surface textures as well as a highly pure zirconium cube for comparison
CAS Number
7440-67-7
PubChem CID Number
23995
Atomära Egenskaper
Atomradie
160 pm
Kovalent radie
175 pm
Elektronegativitet
1,33 (Paulingskalan)
Jonisationspotential
6,6339 eV
Molvolym
14,0 cm3/mol
Värmeledningsförmåga
0,227 W/cm·K
Oxidationstillstånd
1, 2, 3, 4
Användningsområden
Zirconium is mainly used as a refractory and opacifier, although it is used in small amounts as an alloying agent for its strong resistance to corrosion.

Zirconium is used as to make surgical instruments and is used in steel alloys as a hardening agent.

Zirconium is also used to make superconductive magnets.
Zirconium is considered to be non-toxic
Isotoper
Stabila isotoper
90Zr, 91Zr, 92Zr, 94Zr
Instabila isotoper
78Zr, 79Zr, 80Zr, 81Zr, 82Zr, 83Zr, 84Zr, 85Zr, 86Zr, 87Zr, 88Zr, 89Zr, 93Zr, 95Zr, 96Zr, 97Zr, 98Zr, 99Zr, 100Zr, 101Zr, 102Zr, 103Zr, 104Zr, 105Zr, 106Zr, 107Zr, 108Zr, 109Zr, 110Zr