Niob

41
Nb
Grupp
5
Period
5
Block
d
Protoner
Electrons
Neutroner
41
41
52
Generella Egenskaper
Atomnummer
41
Atommassa
92,90638
Mass Number
93
Kategori
Övergångsmetaller
Färg
Grå
Radioaktiv
Nej
Named after Niobe, the daughter of Tantalu
Kristallstruktur
Rymdcentrerat kubisk
Historia
Niobium was discovered by the English chemist Charles Hatchett in 1801 and named the new element columbium.

In 1846, German chemist Henrich Rose independently discovered the element and named it niobium.

The metal was first isolated by Swedish scientist Christian Wilhelm Blomstrand in 1864 who reduced the chloride by heating it in a hydrogen atmosphere.
Elektroner per skal
2, 8, 18, 12, 1
Elektronkonfiguration
[Kr] 4d4 5s1
Nb
Brazil is the leading producer of niobium
Fysikaliska Egenskaper
Aggregationstillstånd
Fast
Densitet
8,57 g/cm3
Smältpunkt
2750,15 K | 2477 °C | 4490,6 °F
Kokpunkt
5017,15 K | 4744 °C | 8571,2 °F
Smältvärme
26,8 kJ/mol
Ångbildningsvärme
690 kJ/mol
Specifik värmekapacitet
0,265 J/g·K
Abundance in Earth's crust
0,0017%
Abundance in Universe
2×10-7%
Ultrapure
Bildkrediter: Images-of-elements
Ultrapure niobium bead, slightly oxidized
CAS Number
7440-03-1
PubChem CID Number
23936
Atomära Egenskaper
Atomradie
146 pm
Kovalent radie
164 pm
Elektronegativitet
1,6 (Paulingskalan)
Jonisationspotential
6,7589 eV
Molvolym
10,87 cm3/mol
Värmeledningsförmåga
0,537 W/cm·K
Oxidationstillstånd
-1, 2, 3, 4, 5
Applications
Niobium is used in arc-welding rods for stabilized grades of stainless steel.

Niobium alloys are strong and are often used in pipeline construction.

The metal is used in superalloys for jet engines and heat resistant equipment.

Niobium is found in many medical devices such as pacemakers.
Some niobium compounds are highly toxic
Isotoper
Stabila isotoper
93Nb
Instabila isotoper
81Nb, 82Nb, 83Nb, 84Nb, 85Nb, 86Nb, 87Nb, 88Nb, 89Nb, 90Nb, 91Nb, 92Nb, 94Nb, 95Nb, 96Nb, 97Nb, 98Nb, 99Nb, 100Nb, 101Nb, 102Nb, 103Nb, 104Nb, 105Nb, 106Nb, 107Nb, 108Nb, 109Nb, 110Nb, 111Nb, 112Nb, 113Nb