Kalcium

20
Ca
Grupp
2
Period
4
Block
s
Protoner
Elektroner
Neutroner
20
20
20
Generella Egenskaper
Atomnummer
20
Atommassa
40,078
Masstal
40
Kategori
Alkaliska jordmetaller
Färg
Silver
Radioaktiv
Nej
From the Latin word calx, lime
Kristallstruktur
Ytcentrerat kubiskt
Historia
Calcium was known as early as the first century when the Ancient Romans prepared lime as calcium oxide.

Calcium was first isolated by Sir Humphry Davy in 1808 when he electrolyzed a mixture of lime and mercuric oxide.

Davy was trying to isolate calcium; when he heard that Jöns Jakob Berzelius and Pontin prepared calcium amalgam by electrolyzing lime in mercury, he tried it himself.
Elektroner per skal
2, 8, 8, 2
Elektronkonfiguration
[Ar] 4s2
Ca
The shell of an egg is made up of primarily calcium carbonate
Fysikaliska Egenskaper
Aggregationstillstånd
Fast
Densitet
1,54 g/cm3
Smältpunkt
1115,15 K | 842 °C | 1547,6 °F
Kokpunkt
1757,15 K | 1484 °C | 2703,2 °F
Smältvärme
8,54 kJ/mol
Ångbildningsvärme
155 kJ/mol
Specifik värmekapacitet
0,647 J/g·K
Abundance in Earth's crust
5%
Abundance in Universe
0,007%
Pure
Bildkrediter: Wikimedia Commons (Matthias Zepper)
Pure calcium in a protective argon gas atmosphere
CAS Number
7440-70-2
PubChem CID Number
5460341
Atomära Egenskaper
Atomradie
197 pm
Kovalent radie
176 pm
Elektronegativitet
1,00 (Paulingskalan)
Jonisationspotential
6,1132 eV
Molvolym
29,9 cm3/mol
Värmeledningsförmåga
2,01 W/cm·K
Oxidationstillstånd
1, 2
Användningsområden
Calcium is used to remove oxygen, sulfur and carbon from alloys.

It is also used as an alloying agent used in the production of aluminum, beryllium, copper, lead, and magnesium alloys.

Calcium is used as a reducing agent in the extraction of other metals, such as uranium, zirconium, and thorium.

Calcium carbonate is used in manufacturing cement and mortar, lime and limestone.
Calcium is considered to be non-toxic
Isotoper
Stabila isotoper
40Ca, 42Ca, 43Ca, 44Ca, 46Ca
Instabila isotoper
34Ca, 35Ca, 36Ca, 37Ca, 38Ca, 39Ca, 41Ca, 45Ca, 47Ca, 48Ca, 49Ca, 50Ca, 51Ca, 52Ca, 53Ca, 54Ca, 55Ca, 56Ca, 57Ca