Kalium

19
K
Grupp
1
Period
4
Block
s
Protoner
Electrons
Neutroner
19
19
20
Generella Egenskaper
Atomnummer
19
Atommassa
39,0983
Mass Number
39
Kategori
Alkalimetaller
Färg
Silver
Radioaktiv
Nej
From the English word, potash - pot ashes; Latin kalium, Arab qali, alkali
Kristallstruktur
Rymdcentrerat kubisk
Historia
Potassium's symbol K comes from 'kalium' the name of the element in Germany and Scandinavia.

Potassium metal was first isolated in 1807 by Sir Humphry Davy, who derived it from caustic potash by the use of electrolysis of the molten salt with the newly discovered voltaic pile.

Potassium was the first metal that was isolated by electrolysis.
Elektroner per skal
2, 8, 8, 1
Elektronkonfiguration
[Ar] 4s1
K
People whose diets are low in potassium can suffer from hypokalemia
Fysikaliska Egenskaper
Aggregationstillstånd
Fast
Densitet
0,862 g/cm3
Smältpunkt
336,53 K | 63,38 °C | 146,08 °F
Kokpunkt
1032,15 K | 759 °C | 1398,2 °F
Smältvärme
2,33 kJ/mol
Ångbildningsvärme
76,9 kJ/mol
Specifik värmekapacitet
0,757 J/g·K
Abundance in Earth's crust
1,5%
Abundance in Universe
0,0003%
Potassium
Bildkrediter: Images-of-elements
Potassium pearls under paraffin oil
CAS Number
7440-09-7
PubChem CID Number
5462222
Atomära Egenskaper
Atomradie
227 pm
Kovalent radie
203 pm
Elektronegativitet
0,82 (Paulingskalan)
Jonisationspotential
4,3407 eV
Molvolym
45,46 cm3/mol
Värmeledningsförmåga
1,024 W/cm·K
Oxidationstillstånd
-1, 1
Applications
The greatest demand for potash has been in its use for fertilizers.

Potassium is an essential constituent for plant growth and is found in most soils.

Potassium nitrate is the main explosive ingredient in gunpowder.

Potassium hydroxide is used in the manufacture of soft soaps and as an electrolyte in alkaline batteries.
Potassium must be handled with great care with full skin and eye protection
Isotoper
Stabila isotoper
39K, 41K
Instabila isotoper
32K, 33K, 34K, 35K, 36K, 37K, 38K, 40K, 42K, 43K, 44K, 45K, 46K, 47K, 48K, 49K, 50K, 51K, 52K, 53K, 54K, 55K