Skandium

21
Sc
Grupp
3
Period
4
Block
d
Protoner
Elektroner
Neutroner
21
21
24
Generella Egenskaper
Atomnummer
21
Atommassa
44,955912
Masstal
45
Kategori
Övergångsmetaller
Färg
Silver
Radioaktiv
Nej
From the Latin word Scandia, Scandinavia
Kristallstruktur
Enkelt hexagonalt
Historia
In 1879, Lars Fredrik Nilson and his team detected scandium in the minerals euxenite and gadolinite.

Nilson prepared 2 grams of scandium oxide of high purity.

Per Teodor Cleve showed that scandium had properties similar to those predicted by Mendeleev for eka-boron.

Metallic scandium was first prepared in 1937 by Fischer and his colleagues.
Elektroner per skal
2, 8, 9, 2
Elektronkonfiguration
[Ar] 3d1 4s2
Sc
The stable form of scandium is created in supernovas via the r-process
Fysikaliska Egenskaper
Aggregationstillstånd
Fast
Densitet
2,989 g/cm3
Smältpunkt
1814,15 K | 1541 °C | 2805,8 °F
Kokpunkt
3109,15 K | 2836 °C | 5136,8 °F
Smältvärme
16 kJ/mol
Ångbildningsvärme
318 kJ/mol
Specifik värmekapacitet
0,568 J/g·K
Abundance in Earth's crust
0,0026%
Abundance in Universe
3×10-6%
Ultrapure
Bildkrediter: Images-of-elements
Ultrapure crystalline scandium
CAS Number
7440-20-2
PubChem CID Number
23952
Atomära Egenskaper
Atomradie
162 pm
Kovalent radie
170 pm
Elektronegativitet
1,36 (Paulingskalan)
Jonisationspotential
6,5615 eV
Molvolym
15,0 cm3/mol
Värmeledningsförmåga
0,158 W/cm·K
Oxidationstillstånd
1, 2, 3
Användningsområden
Scandium is used in sports equipment such as golf iron shafts, baseball bats, bicycle frames and fishing rods.

Scandium iodide, along with sodium iodide, when added to a modified form of mercury-vapor lamp, produces a form of metal halide lamp.

The radioactive isotope 46Sc is used in oil refineries as a tracing agent.
Scandium is considered to be of low toxicity
Isotoper
Stabila isotoper
45Sc
Instabila isotoper
36Sc, 37Sc, 38Sc, 39Sc, 40Sc, 41Sc, 42Sc, 43Sc, 44Sc, 46Sc, 47Sc, 48Sc, 49Sc, 50Sc, 51Sc, 52Sc, 53Sc, 54Sc, 55Sc, 56Sc, 57Sc, 58Sc, 59Sc, 60Sc