Kisel

14
Si
Grupp
14
Period
3
Block
p
Protoner
Electrons
Neutroner
14
14
14
Generella Egenskaper
Atomnummer
14
Atommassa
28,0855
Mass Number
28
Kategori
Metalloid
Färg
Grå
Radioaktiv
Nej
From the Latin word silex, silicis, flint
Kristallstruktur
Tetrahedral Packing
Historia
In 1800, Sir Humphry Davy thought silica to be a compound and not an element; but in 1811, Gay Lussac and Louis Jacques Thénard probably prepared impure amorphous silicon by heating potassium with silicon tetrafluoride.

In 1824 Jöns Jakob Berzelius prepared amorphous silicon by the same general method.

Henri Deville in 1854 first prepared crystalline silicon, the second allotropic form of the element.
Elektroner per skal
2, 8, 4
Elektronkonfiguration
[Ne] 3s2 3p2
Si
Silicon also has the unusual property that it expands as it freezes
Fysikaliska Egenskaper
Aggregationstillstånd
Fast
Densitet
2,3296 g/cm3
Smältpunkt
1687,15 K | 1414 °C | 2577,2 °F
Kokpunkt
3538,15 K | 3265 °C | 5909 °F
Smältvärme
50,2 kJ/mol
Ångbildningsvärme
359 kJ/mol
Specifik värmekapacitet
0,705 J/g·K
Abundance in Earth's crust
27%
Abundance in Universe
0,07%
Close
Bildkrediter: Wikimedia Commons (Enricoros)
Close up photo of a piece of purified silicon
CAS Number
7440-21-3
PubChem CID Number
5461123
Atomära Egenskaper
Atomradie
111 pm
Kovalent radie
111 pm
Elektronegativitet
1,9 (Paulingskalan)
Jonisationspotential
8,1517 eV
Molvolym
12,1 cm3/mol
Värmeledningsförmåga
1,48 W/cm·K
Oxidationstillstånd
-4, -3, -2, -1, 1, 2, 3, 4
Applications
In the form of sand and clay it is used to make concrete and brick; it is a useful refractory material for high-temperature work, and in the form of silicates it is used in making enamels, pottery, etc.

Silica, as sand, is a principal ingredient of glass.

Silicon chips are the basis of modern electronic and computing.

Silicon carbide, more commonly called carborundum is used in abrasives.
If breathed in as a fine silica/silicate dust, it may cause chronic respiratory problems
Isotoper
Stabila isotoper
28Si, 29Si, 30Si
Instabila isotoper
22Si, 23Si, 24Si, 25Si, 26Si, 27Si, 31Si, 32Si, 33Si, 34Si, 35Si, 36Si, 37Si, 38Si, 39Si, 40Si, 41Si, 42Si, 43Si, 44Si