Fosfor

15
P
Grupp
15
Period
3
Block
p
Protoner
Electrons
Neutroner
15
15
16
Generella Egenskaper
Atomnummer
15
Atommassa
30,973762
Mass Number
31
Kategori
Icke-metaller
Färg
Färglös
Radioaktiv
Nej
From the Greek phosphoros, light bearing; ancient name for the planet Venus when appearing before sunrise
Kristallstruktur
Enkelt triklina
Historia
Hennig Brand discovered phosphorus in 1669, in Hamburg, Germany, preparing it from urine.

In 1769, Johan Gottlieb Gahn and Carl Wilhelm Scheele showed that calcium phosphate is found in bones, and they obtained elemental phosphorus from bone ash.

Antoine Lavoisier recognized phosphorus as an element in 1777.
Elektroner per skal
2, 8, 5
Elektronkonfiguration
[Ne] 3s2 3p3
P
Elemental phosphorus exists in two major forms - white phosphorus and red phosphorus
Fysikaliska Egenskaper
Aggregationstillstånd
Fast
Densitet
1,82 g/cm3
Smältpunkt
317,25 K | 44,1 °C | 111,38 °F
Kokpunkt
553 K | 279,85 °C | 535,73 °F
Smältvärme
0,64 kJ/mol
Ångbildningsvärme
12,4 kJ/mol
Specifik värmekapacitet
0,769 J/g·K
Abundance in Earth's crust
0,099%
Abundance in Universe
0,0007%
Red
Bildkrediter: Images-of-elements
Red phosphorus as powder
CAS Number
7723-14-0
PubChem CID Number
5462309
Atomära Egenskaper
Atomradie
98 pm
Kovalent radie
107 pm
Elektronegativitet
2,19 (Paulingskalan)
Jonisationspotential
10,4867 eV
Molvolym
17,0 cm3/mol
Värmeledningsförmåga
0,00235 W/cm·K
Oxidationstillstånd
-3, -2, -1, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5
Applications
Many fertilisers contain a high proportion of phosphorus and are manufactured from concentrated phosphoric acids.

Phosphorus is used in the manufacture of safety matches, pyrotechnics and incendiary shells.

Phosphorus is also used in steel manufacture and in the production of phosphor bronze.
White phosphorus is highly toxic while red phosphorus is considered non-toxic
Isotoper
Stabila isotoper
31P
Instabila isotoper
24P, 25P, 26P, 27P, 28P, 29P, 30P, 32P, 33P, 34P, 35P, 36P, 37P, 38P, 39P, 40P, 41P, 42P, 43P, 44P, 45P, 46P