Tallium

81
Tl
Grupp
13
Period
6
Block
p
Protoner
Electrons
Neutroner
81
81
123
Generella Egenskaper
Atomnummer
81
Atommassa
204,3833
Mass Number
204
Kategori
Posttransitionsmetaller
Färg
Silver
Radioaktiv
Nej
From Greek thallos, meanin a green shoot or twig
Kristallstruktur
Enkelt hexagonalt
Historia
Thallium was discovered spectroscopically by Sir William Crookes in 1861, in London.

In 1862, Claude-Auguste Lamy used a spectrometer to determine the composition of a selenium-containing substance which was deposited during the production of sulfuric acid from pyrite.

He noticed the new green line in the spectra and concluded that a new element was present.
Elektroner per skal
2, 8, 18, 32, 18, 3
Elektronkonfiguration
[Xe] 4f14 5d10 6s2 6p1
Tl
Agatha Christie made use of thallium's toxicity in her novel The Pale Horse
Fysikaliska Egenskaper
Aggregationstillstånd
Fast
Densitet
11,85 g/cm3
Smältpunkt
577,15 K | 304 °C | 579,2 °F
Kokpunkt
1746,15 K | 1473 °C | 2683,4 °F
Smältvärme
4,2 kJ/mol
Ångbildningsvärme
165 kJ/mol
Specifik värmekapacitet
0,129 J/g·K
Abundance in Earth's crust
0,000053%
Abundance in Universe
5×10-8%
Pure
Bildkrediter: Images-of-elements
Pure thallium under argon
CAS Number
7440-28-0
PubChem CID Number
5359464
Atomära Egenskaper
Atomradie
170 pm
Kovalent radie
145 pm
Elektronegativitet
1,62 (Paulingskalan)
Jonisationspotential
6,1082 eV
Molvolym
17,2 cm3/mol
Värmeledningsförmåga
0,461 W/cm·K
Oxidationstillstånd
1, 3
Applications
Thallium selenide has been used in a bolometer for infrared detection.

Thallium is also used in gamma radiation detection equipment.

Thallium oxide has been used to produce glasses with a high index of refraction, and is used in the manufacture of photo cells.

Some of the electrodes in dissolved oxygen analyzers contain thallium.
Thallium and its compounds are highly toxic
Isotoper
Stabila isotoper
203Tl, 205Tl
Instabila isotoper
176Tl, 177Tl, 178Tl, 179Tl, 180Tl, 181Tl, 182Tl, 183Tl, 184Tl, 185Tl, 186Tl, 187Tl, 188Tl, 189Tl, 190Tl, 191Tl, 192Tl, 193Tl, 194Tl, 195Tl, 196Tl, 197Tl, 198Tl, 199Tl, 200Tl, 201Tl, 202Tl, 204Tl, 206Tl, 207Tl, 208Tl, 209Tl, 210Tl, 211Tl, 212Tl