Kol

6
C
Grupp
14
Period
2
Block
p
Protoner
Elektroner
Neutroner
6
6
6
Generella Egenskaper
Atomnummer
6
Atommassa
12,0107
Masstal
12
Kategori
Icke-metaller
Färg
Svart
Radioaktiv
Nej
From the Latin word carbo, charcoal
Kristallstruktur
Enkelt hexagonalt
Historia
Carbon was discovered in prehistory and was known in the forms of soot and charcoal to the earliest human civilizations.

In 1772, Antoine Lavoisier showed that diamonds are a form of carbon; when he burned samples of charcoal and diamond and found that neither produced any water.

In 1779, Carl Wilhelm Scheele showed that graphite burned to form carbon dioxide and so must be another form of carbon.
Elektroner per skal
2, 4
Elektronkonfiguration
[He] 2s2 2p2
C
About 20% of the weight of living organisms is carbon
Fysikaliska Egenskaper
Aggregationstillstånd
Fast
Densitet
2,267 g/cm3
Smältpunkt
3948,15 K | 3675 °C | 6647 °F
Kokpunkt
4300,15 K | 4027 °C | 7280,6 °F
Smältvärme
105 kJ/mol
Ångbildningsvärme
715 kJ/mol
Specifik värmekapacitet
0,709 J/g·K
Abundance in Earth's crust
0,18%
Abundance in Universe
0,5%
Ultrapure
Bildkrediter: Images-of-elements
Ultrapure carbon as graphite
CAS Number
7440-44-0
PubChem CID Number
5462310
Atomära Egenskaper
Atomradie
67 pm
Kovalent radie
77 pm
Elektronegativitet
2,55 (Paulingskalan)
Jonisationspotential
11,2603 eV
Molvolym
5,31 cm3/mol
Värmeledningsförmåga
1,29 W/cm·K
Oxidationstillstånd
-4, -3, -2, -1, 1, 2, 3, 4
Användningsområden
The major use of carbon other than food and wood is in the form of hydrocarbons, most notably the fossil fuel methane gas and crude oil.

Graphite is used for pencil tips, high temperature crucibles, dry cells, electrodes and as a lubricant.

Diamonds are used in jewelry and in industry for cutting, drilling, grinding, and polishing.

Carbon black is used as the black pigment in printing ink.
Pure carbon has extremely low toxicity to humans and can be handled safely in the form of graphite or charcoal
Isotoper
Stabila isotoper
12C, 13C
Instabila isotoper
8C, 9C, 10C, 11C, 14C, 15C, 16C, 17C, 18C, 19C, 20C, 21C, 22C