Rutenium

44
Ru
Grupp
8
Period
5
Block
d
Protoner
Electrons
Neutroner
44
44
57
Generella Egenskaper
Atomnummer
44
Atommassa
101,07
Mass Number
101
Kategori
Övergångsmetaller
Färg
Silver
Radioaktiv
Nej
From the Latin word Ruthenia, Russia
Kristallstruktur
Enkelt hexagonalt
Historia
Jędrzej Śniadecki isolated the element in 1807, but his work was not ratified.

Jöns Berzelius and Gottfried Osann nearly discovered ruthenium in 1827.

In 1844, Karl Ernst Claus confirmed that there was a new element and isolated ruthenium from the platinum residues of the rouble production while he was working in Kazan University, Kazan.
Elektroner per skal
2, 8, 18, 15, 1
Elektronkonfiguration
[Kr] 4d7 5s1
Ru
Ruthenium is unaffected by air, water and acids
Fysikaliska Egenskaper
Aggregationstillstånd
Fast
Densitet
12,37 g/cm3
Smältpunkt
2607,15 K | 2334 °C | 4233,2 °F
Kokpunkt
4423,15 K | 4150 °C | 7502 °F
Smältvärme
25,7 kJ/mol
Ångbildningsvärme
580 kJ/mol
Specifik värmekapacitet
0,238 J/g·K
Abundance in Earth's crust
9,9×10-8%
Abundance in Universe
4×10-7%
Gas
Bildkrediter: Wikimedia Commons (Periodictableru)
Gas phase grown crystals of ruthenium metal
CAS Number
7440-18-8
PubChem CID Number
23950
Atomära Egenskaper
Atomradie
134 pm
Kovalent radie
146 pm
Elektronegativitet
2,2 (Paulingskalan)
Jonisationspotential
7,3605 eV
Molvolym
8,3 cm3/mol
Värmeledningsförmåga
1,17 W/cm·K
Oxidationstillstånd
-2, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8
Applications
Ruthenium is used in platinum and palladium alloys to make wear-resistant electrical contacts.

Ruthenium dioxide and lead and bismuth ruthenates are used in thick-film chip resistors.

Fountain pen nibs are frequently tipped with alloys containing ruthenium.

Ruthenium is a versatile catalyst.
Ruthenium is a suspected carcinogen and its compounds strongly stain the skin
Isotoper
Stabila isotoper
96Ru, 98Ru, 99Ru, 100Ru, 101Ru, 102Ru, 104Ru
Instabila isotoper
87Ru, 88Ru, 89Ru, 90Ru, 91Ru, 92Ru, 93Ru, 94Ru, 95Ru, 97Ru, 103Ru, 105Ru, 106Ru, 107Ru, 108Ru, 109Ru, 110Ru, 111Ru, 112Ru, 113Ru, 114Ru, 115Ru, 116Ru, 117Ru, 118Ru, 119Ru, 120Ru