Torium

90
Th
Grupp
n/a
Period
7
Block
f
Protoner
Electrons
Neutroner
90
90
142
Generella Egenskaper
Atomnummer
90
Atommassa
232,03806
Mass Number
232
Kategori
Aktinider
Färg
Silver
Radioaktiv
Ja
Named after Thor, Scandinavian god of war
Kristallstruktur
Ytcentrerat kubiskt
Historia
Thorium was discovered by Jöns Jacob Berzelius in 1828, in Stockholm, Sweden.

Thorium was first observed to be radioactive in 1898, independently, by Polish-French physicist Marie Curie and German chemist Gerhard Carl Schmidt.

The crystal bar process was discovered by Anton Eduard van Arkel and Jan Hendrik de Boer in 1925 to produce high-purity metallic thorium.
Elektroner per skal
2, 8, 18, 32, 18, 10, 2
Elektronkonfiguration
[Rn] 6d2 7s2
Th
Thorium fuel research is continuing in several countries including the USA and India
Fysikaliska Egenskaper
Aggregationstillstånd
Fast
Densitet
11,7 g/cm3
Smältpunkt
2115,15 K | 1842 °C | 3347,6 °F
Kokpunkt
5061,15 K | 4788 °C | 8650,4 °F
Smältvärme
16 kJ/mol
Ångbildningsvärme
530 kJ/mol
Specifik värmekapacitet
0,113 J/g·K
Abundance in Earth's crust
0,0006%
Abundance in Universe
4×10-8%
The
Bildkrediter: Wikimedia Commons (NASA/ESA/JHU/R.Sankrit & W.Blair)
The Earth's thorium originated in the death throes of ancient stars
CAS Number
7440-29-1
PubChem CID Number
23960
Atomära Egenskaper
Atomradie
179 pm
Kovalent radie
206 pm
Elektronegativitet
1,3 (Paulingskalan)
Jonisationspotential
6,3067 eV
Molvolym
19,9 cm3/mol
Värmeledningsförmåga
0,54 W/cm·K
Oxidationstillstånd
2, 3, 4
Applications
Thorium is used to coat tungsten filaments in light bulbs.

It is also used in its oxide form in gas tungsten arc welding to increase the high-temperature strength of tungsten electrodes and improve arc stability.

Thorium-magnesium alloys are used in the aerospace industry for aircraft engines.
Thorium is highly radioactive
Isotoper
Stabila isotoper
232Th
Instabila isotoper
209Th, 210Th, 211Th, 212Th, 213Th, 214Th, 215Th, 216Th, 217Th, 218Th, 219Th, 220Th, 221Th, 222Th, 223Th, 224Th, 225Th, 226Th, 227Th, 228Th, 229Th, 230Th, 231Th, 233Th, 234Th, 235Th, 236Th, 237Th, 238Th