Osmium

76
Os
Grupp
8
Period
6
Block
d
Protoner
Elektroner
Neutroner
76
76
114
Generella Egenskaper
Atomnummer
76
Atommassa
190,23
Masstal
190
Kategori
Övergångsmetaller
Färg
Slate Gray
Radioaktiv
Nej
From the Greek word osme, meaning smell
Kristallstruktur
Enkelt hexagonalt
Historia
Osmium was discovered in 1803 by English chemist Smithson Tennant in London.

Chemists who studied platinum dissolved it in aqua regia to create soluble salts and observed a small amount of a dark, insoluble residue.

Smithson Tennant analyzed the insoluble residue and concluded that it must contain a new metal.
Elektroner per skal
2, 8, 18, 32, 14, 2
Elektronkonfiguration
[Xe] 4f14 5d6 6s2
Os
Osmium is the least abundant stable element in the Earth's crust
Fysikaliska Egenskaper
Aggregationstillstånd
Fast
Densitet
22,61 g/cm3
Smältpunkt
3306,15 K | 3033 °C | 5491,4 °F
Kokpunkt
5285,15 K | 5012 °C | 9053,6 °F
Smältvärme
31 kJ/mol
Ångbildningsvärme
630 kJ/mol
Specifik värmekapacitet
0,13 J/g·K
Abundance in Earth's crust
1,8×10-7%
Abundance in Universe
3×10-7%
Osmium
Bildkrediter: Wikimedia Commons (Alchemist-hp)
Osmium crystals produced by chemical transport reaction in chlorine gas
CAS Number
7440-04-2
PubChem CID Number
23937
Atomära Egenskaper
Atomradie
135 pm
Kovalent radie
144 pm
Elektronegativitet
2,2 (Paulingskalan)
Jonisationspotential
8,4382 eV
Molvolym
8,49 cm3/mol
Värmeledningsförmåga
0,876 W/cm·K
Oxidationstillstånd
-2, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8
Användningsområden
Osmium is used alloyed with other metals in the platinum group to produce very hard alloys.

Osmium alloys are used in the tips of fountain pens, instrument pivots, and electrical contacts

Osmium tetroxide has been used in fingerprint detection and in staining fatty tissue for optical and electron microscopy.
Even low concentrations in air can cause lung congestion, skin damage, or eye damage
Isotoper
Stabila isotoper
184Os, 187Os, 188Os, 189Os, 190Os, 192Os
Instabila isotoper
161Os, 162Os, 163Os, 164Os, 165Os, 166Os, 167Os, 168Os, 169Os, 170Os, 171Os, 172Os, 173Os, 174Os, 175Os, 176Os, 177Os, 178Os, 179Os, 180Os, 181Os, 182Os, 183Os, 185Os, 186Os, 191Os, 193Os, 194Os, 195Os, 196Os