Tulium

69
Tm
Grupp
n/a
Period
6
Block
f
Protoner
Elektroner
Neutroner
69
69
100
Generella Egenskaper
Atomnummer
69
Atommassa
168,93421
Masstal
169
Kategori
Lantanoider
Färg
Silver
Radioaktiv
Nej
Named after Thule, the earliest name for Scandinavia
Kristallstruktur
Enkelt hexagonalt
Historia
Thulium was discovered by Swedish chemist Per Teodor Cleve in 1879 by looking for impurities in the oxides of other rare earth elements.

The first researcher to obtain nearly pure thulium was Charles James, a British expatriate working on a large scale at New Hampshire College in Durham.

High-purity thulium oxide was first offered commercially in the late 1950s.
Elektroner per skal
2, 8, 18, 31, 8, 2
Elektronkonfiguration
[Xe] 4f13 6s2
Tm
Thulium ore occurs most commonly in China
Fysikaliska Egenskaper
Aggregationstillstånd
Fast
Densitet
9,321 g/cm3
Smältpunkt
1818,15 K | 1545 °C | 2813 °F
Kokpunkt
2223,15 K | 1950 °C | 3542 °F
Smältvärme
16,8 kJ/mol
Ångbildningsvärme
250 kJ/mol
Specifik värmekapacitet
0,16 J/g·K
Abundance in Earth's crust
0,000045%
Abundance in Universe
1×10-8%
Ultrapure
Bildkrediter: Images-of-elements
Ultrapure crystalline thulium
CAS Number
7440-30-4
PubChem CID Number
23961
Atomära Egenskaper
Atomradie
176 pm
Kovalent radie
190 pm
Elektronegativitet
1,25 (Paulingskalan)
Jonisationspotential
6,1843 eV
Molvolym
18,1 cm3/mol
Värmeledningsförmåga
0,168 W/cm·K
Oxidationstillstånd
2, 3
Användningsområden
Thulium is used to dope yttrium aluminum garnets used in lasers.

It has also been used in high-temperature superconductors similarly to yttrium.

Thulium has use in ferrites, ceramic magnetic materials that are used in microwave equipment.

Thulium is used in euro banknotes for its blue fluorescence under UV light to defeat counterfeiters.
Thulium is considered to be non-toxic
Isotoper
Stabila isotoper
169Tm
Instabila isotoper
145Tm, 146Tm, 147Tm, 148Tm, 149Tm, 150Tm, 151Tm, 152Tm, 153Tm, 154Tm, 155Tm, 156Tm, 157Tm, 158Tm, 159Tm, 160Tm, 161Tm, 162Tm, 163Tm, 164Tm, 165Tm, 166Tm, 167Tm, 168Tm, 170Tm, 171Tm, 172Tm, 173Tm, 174Tm, 175Tm, 176Tm, 177Tm, 178Tm, 179Tm