Holmium

67
Ho
Grupp
n/a
Period
6
Block
f
Protoner
Elektroner
Neutroner
67
67
98
Generella Egenskaper
Atomnummer
67
Atommassa
164,93032
Masstal
165
Kategori
Lantanoider
Färg
Silver
Radioaktiv
Nej
From the Latin word Holmia meaning Stockholm
Kristallstruktur
Enkelt hexagonalt
Historia
Holmium was discovered by Swiss chemists Marc Delafontaine and Jacques-Louis Soret in 1878.

They noticed the aberrant spectrographic absorption bands of the then-unknown element.

Later in 1878, Per Teodor Cleve independently discovered the element while he was working on erbia earth.
Elektroner per skal
2, 8, 18, 29, 8, 2
Elektronkonfiguration
[Xe] 4f11 6s2
Ho
Holmium has the highest magnetic strength of any naturally occurring element
Fysikaliska Egenskaper
Aggregationstillstånd
Fast
Densitet
8,795 g/cm3
Smältpunkt
1734,15 K | 1461 °C | 2661,8 °F
Kokpunkt
2993,15 K | 2720 °C | 4928 °F
Smältvärme
17 kJ/mol
Ångbildningsvärme
265 kJ/mol
Specifik värmekapacitet
0,165 J/g·K
Abundance in Earth's crust
0,00012%
Abundance in Universe
5×10-8%
Ultrapure
Bildkrediter: Images-of-elements
Ultrapure holmium
CAS Number
7440-60-0
PubChem CID Number
23988
Atomära Egenskaper
Atomradie
176 pm
Kovalent radie
192 pm
Elektronegativitet
1,23 (Paulingskalan)
Jonisationspotential
6,0215 eV
Molvolym
18,7 cm3/mol
Värmeledningsförmåga
0,162 W/cm·K
Oxidationstillstånd
3
Användningsområden
Holmium is used to create the strongest artificially generated magnetic fields, when placed within high-strength magnets as a magnetic pole piece.

It is one of the colorants used for cubic zirconia and glass, providing yellow or red coloring.

Holmium isotopes are good neutron absorbers and are used in nuclear reactor control rods.
Holmium is considered to be of low toxicity
Isotoper
Stabila isotoper
165Ho
Instabila isotoper
140Ho, 141Ho, 142Ho, 143Ho, 144Ho, 145Ho, 146Ho, 147Ho, 148Ho, 149Ho, 150Ho, 151Ho, 152Ho, 153Ho, 154Ho, 155Ho, 156Ho, 157Ho, 158Ho, 159Ho, 160Ho, 161Ho, 162Ho, 163Ho, 164Ho, 166Ho, 167Ho, 168Ho, 169Ho, 170Ho, 171Ho, 172Ho, 173Ho, 174Ho, 175Ho