Gadolinium

64
Gd
Grupp
n/a
Period
6
Block
f
Protoner
Elektroner
Neutroner
64
64
93
Generella Egenskaper
Atomnummer
64
Atommassa
157,25
Masstal
157
Kategori
Lantanoider
Färg
Silver
Radioaktiv
Nej
From gadolinite, a mineral named for Gadolin, a Finnish chemist
Kristallstruktur
Enkelt hexagonalt
Historia
Gadolinium was first detected spectroscopically in 1880 by the Swiss chemist Jean Charles Galissard de Marignac who separated its oxide.

He observed spectroscopic lines due to gadolinium in samples of gadolinite and in the separate mineral cerite.

The metal was isolated by Paul Emile Lecoq de Boisbaudran in 1886.
Elektroner per skal
2, 8, 18, 25, 9, 2
Elektronkonfiguration
[Xe] 4f7 5d1 6s2
Gd
Gadolinium has the highest neutron cross-section among any stable nuclides
Fysikaliska Egenskaper
Aggregationstillstånd
Fast
Densitet
7,895 g/cm3
Smältpunkt
1585,15 K | 1312 °C | 2393,6 °F
Kokpunkt
3546,15 K | 3273 °C | 5923,4 °F
Smältvärme
10 kJ/mol
Ångbildningsvärme
305 kJ/mol
Specifik värmekapacitet
0,236 J/g·K
Abundance in Earth's crust
0,00052%
Abundance in Universe
2×10-7%
Ultrapure
Bildkrediter: Images-of-elements
Ultrapure amorphous gadolinium
CAS Number
7440-54-2
PubChem CID Number
23982
Atomära Egenskaper
Atomradie
180 pm
Kovalent radie
196 pm
Elektronegativitet
1,2 (Paulingskalan)
Jonisationspotential
6,1501 eV
Molvolym
19,9 cm3/mol
Värmeledningsförmåga
0,106 W/cm·K
Oxidationstillstånd
1, 2, 3
Användningsområden
Gadolinium is used to make gadolinium yttrium garnets which have microwave applications.

It is also used in intravenous radiocontrast agents in magnetic resonance imaging (MRI).

Gadolinium compounds are used for making green phosphors for color TV tubes, and in manufacturing compact discs.
Gadolinium is considered to be moderately toxic
Isotoper
Stabila isotoper
154Gd, 155Gd, 156Gd, 157Gd, 158Gd, 160Gd
Instabila isotoper
134Gd, 135Gd, 136Gd, 137Gd, 138Gd, 139Gd, 140Gd, 141Gd, 142Gd, 143Gd, 144Gd, 145Gd, 146Gd, 147Gd, 148Gd, 149Gd, 150Gd, 151Gd, 152Gd, 153Gd, 159Gd, 161Gd, 162Gd, 163Gd, 164Gd, 165Gd, 166Gd, 167Gd, 168Gd, 169Gd