Gallium

31
Ga
Grupp
13
Period
4
Block
p
Protoner
Elektroner
Neutroner
31
31
39
Generella Egenskaper
Atomnummer
31
Atommassa
69,723
Masstal
70
Kategori
Posttransitionsmetaller
Färg
Silver
Radioaktiv
Nej
From the Latin word Gallia, France; also from Latin, gallus, a translation of Lecoq, a cock
Kristallstruktur
Bascentrerat ortorombiskt
Historia
In 1871, existence of gallium was first predicted by Russian chemist Dmitri Mendeleev and called the element eka-aluminum.

Gallium was discovered spectroscopically by French chemist Paul Emile Lecoq de Boisbaudran in 1875 by its characteristic spectrum in an examination of a sphalerite sample.

Later that year, Lecoq obtained the free metal by electrolysis of its hydroxide in potassium hydroxide solution.
Elektroner per skal
2, 8, 18, 3
Elektronkonfiguration
[Ar] 3d10 4s2 4p1
Ga
Gallium has a strong tendency to supercool below its melting point / freezing point
Fysikaliska Egenskaper
Aggregationstillstånd
Fast
Densitet
5,907 g/cm3
Smältpunkt
302,91 K | 29,76 °C | 85,57 °F
Kokpunkt
2477,15 K | 2204 °C | 3999,2 °F
Smältvärme
5,59 kJ/mol
Ångbildningsvärme
256 kJ/mol
Specifik värmekapacitet
0,371 J/g·K
Abundance in Earth's crust
0,0019%
Abundance in Universe
1×10-6%
Crystals
Bildkrediter: Wikimedia Commons (Foobar)
Crystals of gallium
CAS Number
7440-55-3
PubChem CID Number
5360835
Atomära Egenskaper
Atomradie
135 pm
Kovalent radie
122 pm
Elektronegativitet
1,81 (Paulingskalan)
Jonisationspotential
5,9993 eV
Molvolym
11,8 cm3/mol
Värmeledningsförmåga
0,406 W/cm·K
Oxidationstillstånd
1, 2, 3
Användningsområden
Gallium wets glass or porcelain and forms a brilliant mirror when it is painted on glass.

It is widely used in doping semiconductors and producing solid-state devices such as transistors.

Low melting gallium alloys are used in some medical thermometers as non-toxic substitutes for mercury.

Gallium arsenide is capable of converting electricity directly into coherent light.
Gallium is considered to be non-toxic
Isotoper
Stabila isotoper
69Ga, 71Ga
Instabila isotoper
56Ga, 57Ga, 58Ga, 59Ga, 60Ga, 61Ga, 62Ga, 63Ga, 64Ga, 65Ga, 66Ga, 67Ga, 68Ga, 70Ga, 72Ga, 73Ga, 74Ga, 75Ga, 76Ga, 77Ga, 78Ga, 79Ga, 80Ga, 81Ga, 82Ga, 83Ga, 84Ga, 85Ga, 86Ga