Litium

3
Li
Grupp
1
Period
2
Block
s
Protoner
Elektroner
Neutroner
3
3
4
Generella Egenskaper
Atomnummer
3
Atommassa
6,941
Masstal
7
Kategori
Alkalimetaller
Färg
Silver
Radioaktiv
Nej
From the Greek word lithos, stone
Kristallstruktur
Rymdcentrerat kubisk
Historia
Lithium was discovered by Johann Arfvedson in 1817 when he was analyzing minerals from the island of Uto in Sweden.

The pure metal was isolated the following year by both Swedish chemist William Thomas Brande and English chemist Sir Humphry Davy working independently.

In 1855, larger quantities of lithium were produced through the electrolysis of lithium chloride by Robert Bunsen and Augustus Matthiessen.
Elektroner per skal
2, 1
Elektronkonfiguration
[He] 2s1
Li
Lithium is the only metal which reacts with nitrogen under normal conditions
Fysikaliska Egenskaper
Aggregationstillstånd
Fast
Densitet
0,534 g/cm3
Smältpunkt
453,69 K | 180,54 °C | 356,97 °F
Kokpunkt
1615,15 K | 1342 °C | 2447,6 °F
Smältvärme
3 kJ/mol
Ångbildningsvärme
147 kJ/mol
Specifik värmekapacitet
3,582 J/g·K
Abundance in Earth's crust
0,0017%
Abundance in Universe
6×10-7%
0.5
Bildkrediter: Images-of-elements
0.5 grams lithium under argon
CAS Number
7439-93-2
PubChem CID Number
3028194
Atomära Egenskaper
Atomradie
152 pm
Kovalent radie
128 pm
Elektronegativitet
0,98 (Paulingskalan)
Jonisationspotential
5,3917 eV
Molvolym
13,10 cm3/mol
Värmeledningsförmåga
0,847 W/cm·K
Oxidationstillstånd
1
Användningsområden
Pure lithium metal is used in rechargeable lithium ion batteries.

Lithium stearate is used as an all-purpose and high-temperature lubricant.

Lithium is used in special glasses and ceramics.

Metallic lithium and its complex hydrides are used as high energy additives to rocket propellants.
Lithium is corrosive and requires special handling to avoid skin contact
Isotoper
Stabila isotoper
6Li, 7Li
Instabila isotoper
4Li, 5Li, 8Li, 9Li, 10Li, 11Li, 12Li