Nickel

28
Ni
Grupp
10
Period
4
Block
d
Protoner
Elektroner
Neutroner
28
28
31
Generella Egenskaper
Atomnummer
28
Atommassa
58,6934
Masstal
59
Kategori
Övergångsmetaller
Färg
Grå
Radioaktiv
Nej
From the German word Nickel (Satan), and from kupfernickel, Old Nick's copper
Kristallstruktur
Ytcentrerat kubiskt
Historia
Artifacts made from metallic meteorites have been found dating from as early as 5000 BC.

In 1751, Baron Axel Fredrik Cronstedt was trying to extract copper from kupfernickel and instead produced the white metal.

In the early twentieth century, Ludwig Mond patented a process using nickel carbonyl to purify nickel.
Elektroner per skal
2, 8, 16, 2
Elektronkonfiguration
[Ar] 3d8 4s2
Ni
Nickel is 100 times more concentrated below Earth's crust than in it
Fysikaliska Egenskaper
Aggregationstillstånd
Fast
Densitet
8,912 g/cm3
Smältpunkt
1728,15 K | 1455 °C | 2651 °F
Kokpunkt
3186,15 K | 2913 °C | 5275,4 °F
Smältvärme
17,2 kJ/mol
Ångbildningsvärme
378 kJ/mol
Specifik värmekapacitet
0,444 J/g·K
Abundance in Earth's crust
0,0089%
Abundance in Universe
0,006%
A
Bildkrediter: Images-of-elements
A sheet of nickel
CAS Number
7440-02-0
PubChem CID Number
935
Atomära Egenskaper
Atomradie
124 pm
Kovalent radie
124 pm
Elektronegativitet
1,91 (Paulingskalan)
Jonisationspotential
7,6398 eV
Molvolym
6,59 cm3/mol
Värmeledningsförmåga
0,907 W/cm·K
Oxidationstillstånd
-1, 1, 2, 3, 4
Användningsområden
Nickel is used extensively to make coins and nickel steel for armor plates and burglar-proof vaults.

Tubing made of copper-nickel alloy is extensively used in making desalination plants for converting sea water into fresh water.

Nickel is also used in batteries, ceramics and magnets.
Nickel and its compounds are considered to be carcinogenic
Isotoper
Stabila isotoper
58Ni, 60Ni, 61Ni, 62Ni, 64Ni
Instabila isotoper
48Ni, 49Ni, 50Ni, 51Ni, 52Ni, 53Ni, 54Ni, 55Ni, 56Ni, 57Ni, 59Ni, 63Ni, 65Ni, 66Ni, 67Ni, 68Ni, 69Ni, 70Ni, 71Ni, 72Ni, 73Ni, 74Ni, 75Ni, 76Ni, 77Ni, 78Ni